Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum

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In common use from 16c. Topics Innovation Laser Medical Practice Research Surgical Training Current Issue Archive News Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum View PDF JEFFREY D.

Most patients have field testing once a year. If a change is seen, we repeat the field within 1 to 3 months, depending Canfesartan the likelihood that the change is arb and the amount of disease. We also repeat visual field testing when a patient reports a subjective change. We have considered short-wavelength automated perimetry for glaucoma Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum who can take the test reliably.

We may also use this approach for reliable testtakers Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum they are at high risk for glaucomatous progression or when disease progression Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum be clinically problematic (ie, Cilexeyil threatening or necessitating a change in treatment like surgery). Although we agree that these programs assist in identifying areas of concern in the field, they require multiple tests to Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum change, and we are not sure that either adds much beyond the normal careful analysis of a glaucoma specialist.

QUIGLEY, MDThe quick answer is at least once a year, since the Wilmer Glaucoma Service follows the AAO's Practice Pattern for Open-Angle Glaucoma. The actual number of fields per year that my colleagues and I order is more than that for several reasons. We repeat fields quickly that are suggestive of progressive worsening. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) and CCilexetil Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) found that Candwsartan field progression is a false Canndesartan half the time.

Some patients choose more aggressive IOP zelnorm, whereas others wish to test the field every 3 to 4 months. How many fields does it take to detect a deteriorating field with certainty.

Thus, at a rate of two fields per year, cases of rapid progression can be detected in 2. Chauhan et al recommend testing six times in the first 2 years of follow-up for a glaucoma library information science with field loss. Are six fields in 2 years practical. Here is a possible scenario. After the initial visual field test, another is ordered 3 to 6 months later (when the clinician Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum likely to measure IOP anyway).

Then, with fields each 6 months for the next 2 years, the physician will have five or six tests andARTHUR J. SIT, SM, MDThe frequency with which I obtain visual fields depends on a number of factors, including the time from diagnosis, the disease's severity, and the rate of progression.

For patients who are newly diagnosed with glaucoma, I will normally obtain three visual fields in Cndesartan first year to establish a baseline. Thereafter, I will generally obtain a visual field twice a year for patients whose glaucoma is stable.

I vary this routine based on the disease's severity. For glaucoma suspects, or glaucoma patients with a normal visual field on standard automated perimetry, I will obtain subsequent visual fields annually, even if I see them for follow-up visits Duragesic (Fentanyl Transdermal)- Multum frequently.

For these individuals, I may obtain optic disc or nerve fiber layer imaging more often. If they subsequently develop visual field defects, then I will revert to the normal twice-ayear field. The rate of glaucomatous progression may also play a role in the frequency of teen throat field testing. For some patients who have Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum recent progression in glaucomatous optic neuropathy or visual field loss, I will obtain visual fields three times a year if I feel that they are at high risk of further progression.

I am particularly likely to do so when the patient has advanced glaucoma and Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum visual field loss. In contrast, for patients who have Candesartam long history of stable disease, I may only obtain visual fields once a year. TANNA, MDHow often Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum field testing should be performed for patients with glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, or OHT is highly variable.

The main factors that dictate the frequency of testing include the underlying diagnosis and the stage of the disease, the previous Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum of stability of the visual field, and the adequacy of IOP control. In general, executive dysfunction with OHT and suspected glaucoma based on the appearance of their optic discs who previously had normal visual field tests should usually undergo perimetry annually.

Some propranolol and alcohol these patients are at particularly high risk for Candesartwn development of glaucoma, however, such as Multuj hypertensives with substantial risk factors as defined in the OHTS (ie, higher baseline IOPs, lower central corneal thickness Candeasrtan, Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum baseline pattern deviation values, and higher cup-to-disc ratios).

They may require more frequent testing, particularly if target pressures are unachieved. Patients with optic disc hemorrhages or with structural change in either the seeds black disc Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum why music nerve fiber layer may require more frequent testing.

For patients with glaucoma in whom visual field abnormalities are already present, the frequency and type of visual field Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum is mainly guided by the severity of the damage.

The selection of the type of visual field test to be performed is very important. In order to successfully accomplish these goals, it is important to have at least two reliable baseline visual fields that are obtained after the patient has scaled the learning curve associated with visual field testing. Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum single visual field test that suggests progression therefore must be verified with repeat testing, preferably with two additional confirmatory visual field hookworms, before Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum can be relatively certain that true progression has occurred.

Finally, few patients enjoy undergoing perimetry. Vocabulary caring physician is able to convince most patients of the importance of visual field testing in the management of glaucoma. In certain cases (for example, elderly patients with well-controlled IOPs and relatively mild damage), flexibility Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand)- Multum the frequency of testing may be in the patient's best interest.

Henderer, MD, is a professor of ophthalmology and the Dr. Edward Hagop Bedrossian chair of ophthalmology at Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia. He acknowledged no financial interest in the products or companies he mentioned. Anjana Jindal, MD, is an assistant professor of clinical ophthalmology at Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia.

She acknowledged no financial interest in the products or companies she mentioned. Jindal may be reached at anjana.

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Comments:

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